Andrew Bell’s research interests focus on international security, international law, the law of armed conflict, humanitarian intervention, counterinsurgency, and ethics in war. His current research examines the effect of military culture, the law of armed conflict, and norms of restraint on conduct toward civilians during war. Bell earned a Ph.D. in political science from Duke University specializing in security and conflict studies, a J.D.-M.A. from the University of Virginia School of Law specializing in international law, and an M.T.S. from Duke Divinity School specializing in ethics and just war theory. He has served as an active duty and reserve officer in the U.S. Air Force, with service in Iraq and Afghanistan.